Citroen – Citroen is a French automobile manufacturer founded by André Citroen in 1919. It is today part of PSA Peugeot Citroen. It is based in the Rue Fructidor, Paris. Originally a manufacturer of cars for the mass market with a relatively simple design, world in 1934 with the innovative Traction Avant, the first production car with front-wheel drive in the world 1934-1956. Until the late 1980s, the company had a good reputation for addressing automobile design in a unique and innovative way. Significant -1981, HY, Duck, the DS 1955-1975, Goddess.André Citroen built armaments for France during World War II and after the war he had a factory and had no product. In 1919 the company started to produce automobiles, type A.The Citroen logo is the double angle, referencing early work of Citroen on the herringbone or double helical teeth, but there are also other theories about this. Citroen was a Jew and a Mason of international renown, attached to lodge Positive Philosophy in Paris. The logo can be interpreted as a Masonic symbol a double masonic square or a double masonic compass, ideology of Citroen with his invention of the double helical gearing. In masonry, the compass with the symbolism of associated architect’s tools ‘, so it is possible that Citroen used a double compass, his invention of a Masonic way.
Citroen was a salesman interested he used the Eiffel Tower as the largest exhibition of advertising in the world, as in the Records. He also sponsored Croisiere Jaune and Africa Croisiere Noire is the potential of the vehicles with the system of law Kégresse demonstrate equipped to cross inhospitable regions. Transported scientists and journalists and gave a promotional success expeditions.In 1924, Citroen began a business relationship with American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, had been working to develop Budd Edelstahlkörperfür railroad cars, for the. Budd went on steel bodies for many automakers produce, dodging as his first big auto client. In the first all-steel body in Europe.
Initially the cars were successful, but soon with competitors still a wooden structure for their bodies, body introduced new designs. Citroen not redesign the bodies of his car and began to be perceived as old. Citroen continues to sell in large numbers, despite the disadvantage of the style, but the low price of the car was the main selling point and Citroen experienced heavy losses.This encouraged Citroen Traction Avant, which develop as an innovative car that does not answer the competition. The Traction Avant had three revolutionary features a unitary body with no separate frame, suspension and front wheel drive. Citroen a prototype, the control 7 Power CV was 32 Create CV Traction Avant 1934.The Traction Avant sets out the main elements of the mechanical design were followed 30 years later by the mini today and most of the manufacturers.In 1933, Citroen also, a passenger car with the first diesel engine on the market in the developed world with Harry Ricardo.
Rapid development of the Traction Avant was expensive and contributed to the company’s financial ruin. In 1934, debt forced the company into foreclosure and insisted that the main creditor, Michelin tire manufacturers then. Fortunately for Michelin, the Traction Avant met with market acceptance and the basic philosophy that had led to the continuous design. During the German occupation of France in World War II, continued their work and developed the concepts that later brought to market in the 2CV and DS. These were often regarded by contemporary journalists as avant-garde, even design.It began a period of unusual brand loyalty, automobile industry only in niche brands, like Porsche and Ferrari. The cult appeal of cars Citroenistes took nearly two decades to fade about 1995.Citroen 2CV led the 2 fiscal horsepower, Paris Salon in 1948. This car will be a bestseller to to the rural population is the goal of the designer in French with an alternative engine for the horse. The car remained in production, with minor changes until 1990 and was a common sight on French roads until recently.1955 saw the introduction of the DS, the first full use of the system now legendary hydropneumatic self-leveling Citroen, which was tested in the rear suspension of the last of the Traction. The DS was the first production car with disc brakes.
The DS had power steering, power brakes and power suspension and, since 1968, looking headlights. A unique high-pressure system, was used to activate the piston at the top of the transmission to change gears in the transmission and clutch operation in the Citromatic semi- automatic transmission Citroen.This high pressure Hydrauliksystemdie would form the basis of many Citroen, including the SM, GS, CX, BX, XM and Xantia. These vehicles share the distinction of rising operating ride height when the engine is started feature was a mechanical camel per Car & Driver magazine. The dashboard includes a lever, the driver can select if the car with the body in high or low position drive. Such suspension was clearly in a position to absorb road irregularities without disturbing the occupants.During the raid, Citroen Maserati, high pressure hydraulic system in several Citroen Maserati models, for power clutch operation Bora, power pedal adjustment Bora, pop-up headlights Bora, Merak was used, brakes Bora, Merak, KHAMSIN, steering Khamsin ? and the entire Quattroporte II prototype, which was a four-door Citroen SM under the skin.
Citroen was one of the first pioneers of the trend now wisdespread aerodynamic automobile design, to reduce fuel consumption and high- speed performance helps by reducing air resistance. The company started with a wind tunnel in the 1950s.In 1963, negotiated with Peugeot Citroen to work together in the purchase of raw materials and equipment. The talks will be broken in 1965.This year, Citroen over the French carmaker Panhard took in the hope that with panhard experience in mid-sized car its own range of very small, cheap large cars eg 2CV/Ami and expensive cars complement eg, DS / ID. The collaboration between the two companies had begun 12 years ago and had agreed to a partial merger of their sales networks in 1953. Panhard no longer the vehicles in 1967.1968 saw a restructuring of Citroen ‘s worldwide activities under a new holding company, Citroen SA. Michelin is before long the majority shareholder of the Citroen, sold 49% stake to Fiat, in what
is considered PARDEVI agreement Participation et Développement Industriels known.
This year Citroen purchased the Italian sports car manufacturer Maserati and launched the grand tourer SM, which featured a Maserati V6 engine and fully powered steering system called DIRAVI. The SM is designed as if the DS, a level of investment the GT sector alone will never be overwritten to endure in a position, even in the best of circumstances. Circumstances has been driven less favorable than in the 1970s. Citroen suffered another financial blow in the energy crisis of 1973. In 1974 Citroen withdrew from North America, by design rules prohibit the main features of Citroen cars.Huge losses at Citroen were to go through failure of the lathe locomotive risk, as well as the strategic mistake, the 15 years from 1955 to 1970 without a model in the profitable middle range of the European market and the huge development costs for damage caused GS, CX, SM, Birotor, Maserati Bora, Maserati Merak and Maserati Khamsin models each a marvel of engineering in its own right.